5 years impact factor: 0.895
Fuente: 2015 JCR Social Science
Edition de Thomson Reuters
                         

  

THE TARAPACÁ DECLARATION: “A WATERLESS PEOPLE IS A DEAD PEOPLE”

ACTA DE TARAPACÁ: “PUEBLO SIN AGUA, PUEBLO MUERTO”

Calogero M. Santoro, Victoria Castro, José M. Capriles, José Barraza, Jacqueline Correa, Pablo A. Marquet, Virginia McRostie, Eugenia M. Gayo, Claudio Latorre, Daniela Valenzuela, Mauricio Uribe, María Eugenia de Porras, Vivien G. Standen, Dante Angelo, Antonio Maldonado, Eva Hamamé and Daniella Jofré

“The Tarapacá Declaration” draws attention to the urgent need to change how human societies have been using water in the Atacama Desert, based on a historical trajectory spanning several millennia. The Declaration, an initiative that summarizes the results of the CONICYT/PIA, Anillo project SOC1405, is oriented towards civil society and various political entities, aiming to generate technological and cultural changes to halt and mitigate the effects caused by anthropogenic activities in one of the oldest and most arid deserts in the world. In the course of the project, we established the urgent need to sensitize society to the wasteful overuse and misuse of water in the Atacama Desert, a non-renewable resource in relation to the economic scales of extraction of this element that depends, fundamentally, on fossil waters that have accumulated for millennia in the highlands of the Desert. In this way we want to avoid that this scientific knowledge is encapsulated in the universities and to echo the point made by Victoria Castro (2003): that to grow you have to educate.

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20185002(en)/04 - Obsidian in the Forest: Geochemistry of Archaeological Artifacts from SW Río Negro and NW Chubut (Patagonia, Argentina)

OBSIDIAN IN THE FOREST: GEOCHEMISTRY OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL ARTIFACTS FROM SW RÍO NEGRO AND NW CHUBUT (PATAGONIA, ARGENTINA)

OBSIDIANAS EN EL BOSQUE: DETERMINACIÓN GEOQUÍMICA DE ARTEFACTOS ARQUEOLÓGICOS DEL S-O DE RÍO NEGRO Y N-O DE CHUBUT (PATAGONIA ARGENTINA)

Cristina Bellelli, Mariana Carballido Calatayud and Charles Stern

We present new data about the trace-element geochemistry of obsidian artifacts from archaeological sites located in the mixed Nothofagus and Austrocedrus forest of northwest Patagonia, Argentina. These data enlarge the available information in this field and allow us to discuss both the spatial distribution and the circulation of obsidian inside the forest and between this environment and both the steppes to the east and the Pacific coast to the west. We analyzed by ICP-MS the trace-element composition of 32 archaeological obsidian artifacts from seven sites located in the localities of El Manso, El Hoyo and Cholila. These data indicate north-south circulation of obsidian within the interior of the forest, and also east-west circulation over considerable distances between the steppes and the forest. No obsidian from sources in Chile has been found. Even though hunter-gatherers began to inhabit the Andean Patagonian forest in the Early Holocene, previous studies have not recorded the use of obsidian inside the forest environment until Late Holocene when the most intense human occupation of these spaces occurred. The new data presented here extends the temporal discussion of the use of obsidian in the forest back into the Early Holocene.

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20185002(en)/05 - Obsidian, Turquoise, and Metals in Southern Chile. Social Perspectives from their Presence and Provenance in Mocha Island (AD 1000-1700)

OBSIDIAN, TURQUOISE, AND METALS IN SOUTHERN CHILE. SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES FROM THEIR PRESENCE AND PROVENANCE IN MOCHA ISLAND (AD 1000-1700)

OBSIDIANAS, TURQUESAS Y METALES EN EL SUR DE CHILE. PERSPECTIVAS SOCIALES A PARTIR DE SU PRESENCIA Y PROVENIENCIA EN ISLA MOCHA (1.000-1.700 D.C.)

Roberto Campbell, Hugo Carrión, Valentina Figueroa, Ángela Peñaloza, Maria Teresa Plaza and Charles Stern

Compositional analyses performed on obsidian pieces, turquoise beads and metallic artefacts from Mocha Island allow us to propose a high mobility scenario for these goods for the last 1000 years in Southern Chile. These analyses lead us to hypothesize about the connections with areas such as the Coastal Range in Araucanía (35 km), central Neuquén in Argentina(390 km), and the Bolivian Altiplano/Argentinian Northwest (1900 km). The presence of these goods in Mocha Island and Southern Chile would be part of the deep social transformations undergone by the societies that inhabited these territories toward the end of the first millennium AD, leading to the formation of the El Vergel complex.

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20185002(en)/06 - Exploitation of Obsidian in the Central Plateau of Santa Cruz. Strategies of Production, Use and Circulation

EXPLOITATION OF OBSIDIAN IN THE CENTRAL PLATEAU OF SANTA CRUZ. STRATEGIES OF PRODUCTION, USE AND CIRCULATION

EXPLOTACIÓN DE OBSIDIANAS EN LA MESETA CENTRAL DE SANTA CRUZ. ESTRATEGIAS DE PRODUCCIÓN, USO Y CIRCULACIÓN

Manuel Cueto, Ariel D. Frank and Fabiana Skarbun

In this paper, we examine the strategies of supply, exploitation, circulation and consumption of the obsidian found in sites from the archaeological localities of La María and Cerro Tres Tetas (Central Plateau of Santa Cruz province, Argentina). Technomorphologic, functional and geochemical analyses of the obsidian remains from these localities were carried out. Results show that obsidian comes from Pampa del Asador a source located over 125 km from the sites. Two chronological moments in the exploitation of this raw material were identified with an increase in consumption over time. During the Final Pleistocene/Early Holocene, obsidian was not a significant resource in the technological organization. Production sequences indicate that tools may have arrived already manufactured to the sites. In contrast, in the Middle and Late Holocene, cores and/or nodules were brought to the localities. Production strategies are similar to the ones recorded for local raw materials. There is no evidence to indicate that obsidian was a more valued resource than local rocks. We cannot ascertain that obsidian acquisition was part of a sporadic exploitation strategy from the source region. We believe that this raw material was obtained in mobility circuits and from intergroup contact.

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20185002(en)/07 - Technological Strategies used in the Exploitation of Raw Materials and the Knapping of Tools in Pampa Oeste Zona de Aprovisionamiento y Cantera (Antofagasta de la Sierra - Catamarca, Argentina)

TECHNOLOGICAL STRATEGIES USED IN THE EXPLOITATION OF RAW MATERIALS AND THE KNAPPING OF TOOLS IN PAMPA OESTE ZONA DE APROVISIONAMIENTO Y CANTERA (ANTOFAGASTA DE LA SIERRA - CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA)

ESTRATEGIAS TECNOLÓGICAS EMPLEADAS EN LA EXPLOTACIÓN DE MATERIAS PRIMAS Y FORMATIZACIÓN DE ARTEFACTOS EN PAMPA OESTE ZONA DE APROVISIONAMIENTO Y CANTERA (ANTOFAGASTA DE LA SIERRA – CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA)

Federico Miguel Bobillo

The volcanic rock quarry Pampa Oeste Zona de Aprovisionamiento y Cantera (POZAC) presents evidence of knapping activities related to the extraction of lithic resources which were transported to camps and residential bases located in Quebrada Secaand Punta de la Peña (Antofagasta de la Sierra - Catamarca, Argentina). The aim of this research was to study the lithic contexts of the knapping areas located at POZAC, by analyzing the selection criteria for the exploitation of these lithic resources as well as the methods and techniques used in the management of blocks, nodules and nodular flakes employed as blanks. For this purpose, we developed systematic surveys and sampling of six “Discrete Knapping Areas” (DKA) and performed techno-typological analyses of cores, core-flakes, flakes and knapping tools recovered. It was possible to establish the characteristics of selection, collection, transportation and reduction of nodules and blocks of volcanic rocks with different sizes and morphologies, the usage of nodular flakes as core-flakes, and the extraction of blanks of variable dimensions for knapping tools.

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