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UNEXPECTED EFFECTS OF CALCHAQUI VALLEY DENATURALIZATIONS (ARGENTINIAN NORTHWEST). THE “DOUBLE SETTLEMENT” AS A RESISTANCE STRATEGY

EFECTOS IMPREVISTOS DE LAS DESNATURALIZACIONES DEL VALLE CALCHAQUÍ (NOROESTE ARGENTINO). EL “DOBLE ASENTAMIENTO” COMO ESTRATEGIA DE RESISTENCIA

Lorena B. Rodríguez

The goal of this paper is to review the denaturalization process suffered by local indigenous peoples after the end of the Calchaquíes Wars (1665), focusing primarily on one of their resistance strategies: maintaining ties with the place of origin and establishing, in some cases, a “double settlement”. Within a long-term framework and through a global perspective as well as by the monitoring of two specific cases we aim to look deeply into this return strategy to the Calchaquí space. We understand that this practice became a real field of power dispute between colonial agents and indigenous peoples, and an instance of socioethnic reproduction.

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RIGHTS IN CONFLICT. DISPUTES AROUND THE INHERITANCE OF A SAYAÑA IN AYMARA TERRITORY

DERECHOS EN PUGNA. DISPUTAS EN TORNO DE LA HERENCIA DE UNA SAYAÑA EN TERRITORIO AYMARA

Alejandro Isla

This article describes the practices of different actors in a 100-year long legal dispute for a plot in the Community of Guaraya (today ayllu), which adjoins the town of Tiwanaku in Bolivia. The plot is a sayaña, a type of Aymara property that relates (the ayllu’s) collective interests with the interests of families, who have occupied and worked it, as well as performed the corresponding rituals in it for years. Thus, the trial reveals individual logics inspired by liberal traditions, which are in opposition to the collective ones prevalent in the community. These families, however, do not give up disputing with wisdom and ingenuity in State courts, which are alien to their customary law. The vicissitudes of the trial -whose roots go back to the late nineteenth century- in national courts of different jurisdictions, geographical scope, across all judicial instances, demonstrate forms of micro-resistance, as well as adaptation, in the construction of community autonomies before or in the margins of the Nation State. The text is based on the interpretation of a judicial file, guided by the author’s ethnographic fieldwork in Guaraya.

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20174904(en)/005-Late Pre-Hispanic Societies in Northern Region of the Central Argentina (Sierras del Norte, Córdoba). Approaches from Plant Resources

LATE PRE-HISPANIC SOCIETIES IN NORTHERN REGION OF THE CENTRAL ARGENTINA (SIERRAS DEL NORTE, CÓRDOBA). APPROACHES FROM PLANT RESOURCES

LAS SOCIEDADES PREHISPÁNICAS TARDÍAS EN LA REGIÓN SEPTENTRIONAL DEL CENTRO DE ARGENTINA (SIERRAS DEL NORTE, CÓRDOBA). AVANCES A SU CONOCIMIENTO DESDE LOS RECURSOS VEGETALES

Andrea Recalde y Laura López

The Late Pre-Hispanic Period (ca. 400-1550 AD) is characterized by communities that occupied the central-western area of the Sierras of Córdoba and who developed flexible strategies and patterns of subsistence where seasonal mobility was central. This seasonal mobility allowed exploiting different environments, which provided resources throughout the year. In this context, agriculture, which was small-scale and with scarce or no-mechanization, did not regulate the life of the pre-Hispanic communities but was subject to the absence of other alternatives at the beginning of the productive season. Data recovered in the northern region of Sierras of Córdoba, specifically in Cerro Colorado (Sierras del Norte), reveal similar historical processes to those in the central-western region regarding the type of subsistence strategies and, fundamentally, of (small-scale dryland) agricultural practice. However, the data gathered gradually indicate that these economic strategies produced different landscapes characterized by different ways in handling wild and domesticated plant species. Therefore dissimilar strategies related to agricultural times and mobility patterns were carried out.

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20174904(en)/004-Ceramic Innovations in the Early Intermediate Period: Ak’awillay and Waru Pottery from Cuzco, Perú

CERAMIC INNOVATIONS IN THE EARLY INTERMEDIATE PERIOD: AK’AWILLAY AND WARU POTTERY FROM CUZCO, PERU

INNOVACIONES ALFARERAS DEL PERÍODO INTERMEDIO TEMPRANO: CERÁMICA AK’AWILLAY Y WARU DE CUSCO, PERÚ

Véronique Bélisle y Hubert Quispe-Bustamante

During the Middle Horizon (A.D. 600-1000), the expansion of the Wari state was associated with several changes throughout Peru. In Cuzco, the Wari built large settlements and introduced a material culture that was distinct from local traditions. Some archaeologists suggest that interaction between Ayacucho and Cuzco during the Early Intermediate Period (EIP, AD 200-600) facilitated Wari expansion in Cuzco at the beginning of the Middle Horizon. These scholars further argue that this early exchange with Ayacucho is responsible for the emergence of a new pottery style in Cuzco. This new style, Qotakalli, would represent a break from local pottery traditions and show similarities with the EIP pottery from Ayacucho. In this article we present new data on two little-known EIP pottery styles from Cuzco, Ak’awillay and Waru. These two traditions show continuity with earlier and later local ceramic traditions, suggesting that the emergence of new pottery styles in Cuzco during the EIP was the result of indigenous development rather than outside influence. The emergence of new styles coincided with important economic changes in the region that cannot be explained by exchange with people from Ayacucho.

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20174904(en)/003-Behind the Veneers. Labor Organization in Cerro Blanco Sur, an Early Building of the Peruvian Central Andes

BEHIND THE VENEERS. LABOR ORGANIZATION IN CERRO BLANCO SUR, AN EARLY BUILDING OF THE PERUVIAN CENTRAL ANDES

DETRÁS DE LOS PARAMENTOS. ORGANIZACIÓN DE LA CONSTRUCCIÓN EN CERRO BLANCO SUR, UN EDIFICIO TEMPRANO DE LOS ANDES CENTRALES (PERÚ)

Rafael Vega-Centeno Sara-Lafosse, Américo Santillán y Alexis Solis Curi

We describe the architectural evidence of the site Cerro Blanco Sur in order to define its formal patterns and evaluate its construction process. The formal analysis reveals similarities with the well-known early architectural complexes of the Casma Valley thus expanding our perspective on regional dynamics during the Early Formative Period. Also the record of the veneers of 80 meter-long walls allows reconstructing the construction process, figuring a scenario where small segments were built in a sequential mode. Hence, it did not seem to have required large-scale recruitment of labor force, but, rather, small groups of masons who worked in a sequential mode during the construction process. Our analysis provides a pioneer study on Early Formative Period construction processes which opens new perspectives for the understanding of the socio-political dynamics behind the building of public architecture during this period.

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