CAN MITOCHONDRIAL DNA PROVIDE INFORMATION ON THE ETHNOGENESIS OF CHILEAN NATIVE POPULATIONS?

¿PUEDE EL ADN MITOCONDRIAL PROPORCIONAR INFORMACIÓN SOBRE LA ETNOGÉNESIS DE LOS PUEBLOS ORIGINARIOS CHILENOS?

Francisco Rothhammer, Giannina Puddu y Macarena Fuentes-Guajardo

Despite efforts made by numerous researchers, existing knowledge about the origin of the majority of Chilean ethnic populations continues to be fragmentary and partially contradictory. Our aim is to contribute to the clarification of this important aspect of Chilean history, from the perspective of historical genetics. We first examine the variation of pan-American haplogroups of mitochondrial DNA (A, B, C and D) in five natural regions of continental Chile: Norte Grande (Far North), Norte Chico (Near North), Central Zone, Southern Zone and Southernmost Zone. When evaluating the distribution of men and women of American ancestral origin, the predominance of women over men is noticeable. In contrast, when the gender distribution of individuals of European ancestral origin is analyzed, male predominance is consistently observed. Next we calculated genetic distances between representatives of different ethnic groups of the southern cone of South America, the natural regions of Chile and mixed populations of Brazil, Bolivia, Peru and Argentina. As expected, genetic distances indicate proximity between Quechua, Aymara, and Atacameño and the Norte Grande, and between Pehuenche, Mapuche, Huilliche, Tehuelche, Alacalufe, Yagan and Ona and the Southern and Southernmost Zone. In addition, displacements of groups and population mixing involving the Amazon, Central Andes and Argentina are revealed, contributing to a clearer understanding of the geographical origin of Chilean ethnic groups.

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ASSESSMENT OF AN EAST-WEST PHENOTYPIC VARIATION IN BODY HEIGHT, BODY FORM AND BODY MASS AMONG PREHISTORIC HUNTER-GATHERERS OF PATAGONIA AND TIERRA DEL FUEGO, CHILE

EVALUACIÓN DE LA VARIACIÓN FENOTÍPICA DEL PESO, LA FORMA Y LA MASA CORPORAL EN GRUPOS CAZADORES-RECOLECTORES PREHISTÓRICOS DE PATAGONIA Y TIERRA DEL FUEGO, CHILE

Marta Alfonso-Durruty, Bretton T. Giles, Manuel San Román, and Flavia Morello

Fuego-Patagonia’s marine and terrestrial groups were historically described as phenotypically distinct but, studies of these phenotypic differences have yet to be conducted. This study evaluates phenotypic variation in Fuego-Patagonia. Phenotypic disparities result from extrinsic and intrinsic factors and therefore can reveal differences in both long and short term adaptations as well as genetic differences. Fifty-one adults were assessed. A total of six post-cranial measurements were included: maximum length of the humerus (MHL); maximum length of the radius (MRL); Bicondylar length of the femur (BFL); Maximum length of the tibia (MTL); bi-iliac breadth (BIB), and; antero-posterior diameter of the femoral head (FHD). Brachial index, crural index, body mass, body mass index and stature were then calculated. In general, terrestrial individuals had longer lower limb bones and were the tallest and heaviest. Marine individuals had the shortest bones and were shorter and lighter. Mixed-economy individuals showed mostly intermediate values. The trends are more marked in males than in females. The results suggests the presence of an east-to-west phenotypic gradient in the region that may have resulted from intrinsic and/or extrinsic differences between the groups. But, the sample size of this study is small, and thus the results should be cautiously considered.

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SOCIOCULTURAL INTEGRATION AND RIGHTS OF IMMIGRANT CHILDREN IN THE LOCAL CONTEXT. THE CASE OF THE RECOLETA DISTRICT (METROPOLITAN REGION, CHILE)

INTEGRACIÓN SOCIOCULTURAL Y DERECHOS DE LAS NIÑAS Y LOS NIÑOS MIGRANTES EN EL CONTEXTO LOCAL. EL CASO DE RECOLETA
(REGIÓN METROPOLITANA, CHILE)

Iskra Pavez-Soto

Sociocultural integration of migrant children is increasingly becoming an issue of local interest, as it is in the family, school and neighbourhood where rights are exercised and integration is experienced. Within this perspective, this article analyzes the sociocultural integration of immigrant children in the Recoleta district in Santiago (Chile). Data for this qualitative study have been collected through interviews with immigrant children ages 6 to14 both from Peru and born in Chile to immigrant parents. The study concludes that social rights (like health and education) are exercised in Recoleta. However, social integration is greatly affected by poverty, exclusion and discrimination. Even though their voices are not always heard in matters directly affecting them –like their own migration–, these children actively participate in local associations that strengthen a sense of belonging and promote a critical reflection on the cultural forms of “being a girl and a boy, here and now”.

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UNEXPECTED EFFECTS OF CALCHAQUI VALLEY DENATURALIZATIONS (ARGENTINIAN NORTHWEST). THE “DOUBLE SETTLEMENT” AS A RESISTANCE STRATEGY

EFECTOS IMPREVISTOS DE LAS DESNATURALIZACIONES DEL VALLE CALCHAQUÍ (NOROESTE ARGENTINO). EL “DOBLE ASENTAMIENTO” COMO ESTRATEGIA DE RESISTENCIA

Lorena B. Rodríguez

The goal of this paper is to review the denaturalization process suffered by local indigenous peoples after the end of the Calchaquíes Wars (1665), focusing primarily on one of their resistance strategies: maintaining ties with the place of origin and establishing, in some cases, a “double settlement”. Within a long-term framework and through a global perspective as well as by the monitoring of two specific cases we aim to look deeply into this return strategy to the Calchaquí space. We understand that this practice became a real field of power dispute between colonial agents and indigenous peoples, and an instance of socioethnic reproduction.

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RIGHTS IN CONFLICT. DISPUTES AROUND THE INHERITANCE OF A SAYAÑA IN AYMARA TERRITORY

DERECHOS EN PUGNA. DISPUTAS EN TORNO DE LA HERENCIA DE UNA SAYAÑA EN TERRITORIO AYMARA

Alejandro Isla

This article describes the practices of different actors in a 100-year long legal dispute for a plot in the Community of Guaraya (today ayllu), which adjoins the town of Tiwanaku in Bolivia. The plot is a sayaña, a type of Aymara property that relates (the ayllu’s) collective interests with the interests of families, who have occupied and worked it, as well as performed the corresponding rituals in it for years. Thus, the trial reveals individual logics inspired by liberal traditions, which are in opposition to the collective ones prevalent in the community. These families, however, do not give up disputing with wisdom and ingenuity in State courts, which are alien to their customary law. The vicissitudes of the trial -whose roots go back to the late nineteenth century- in national courts of different jurisdictions, geographical scope, across all judicial instances, demonstrate forms of micro-resistance, as well as adaptation, in the construction of community autonomies before or in the margins of the Nation State. The text is based on the interpretation of a judicial file, guided by the author’s ethnographic fieldwork in Guaraya.

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